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So when it says all ionic bonds have some covalent character it is just talking about how covalent bonds are less soluble right? And the higher the distortions/polarization the more covalent character means it becomes less soluble compared to other salts?
Yes! Essentially, Dr. Lavelle discussed how it is necessary to correct the ionic model to account for the fact that electrons are shared, to some extent, between a cation and anion due to these distortions. With regards to solubility, you are correct in stating that the more covalent character a compound has, the less soluble (as solubility in water is a characteristic of salts).
And thus conversely, a molecule displaying low covalent character (and high ionic character) would be more soluble in water than those of high covalent character. The character of a molecule can be determined either through the differences in electronegativity between the cation and anion of the molecule or through the polarizability of the anion and polarizing power of the cation.
Basically it is referring to solubility. If a certain compound has more covalent character then it is less soluble in water. Compounds with elements close together have similar electronegativity, so they are covalent. So if you want to find out which element is less soluble in water look for compounds with elements close to each other on the periodic table.
Yes you are correct in both aspects. The way I think of it is a covalent bond is a sharing of electrons and ionic bond is an anion stealing an electron from a cation. Some ionic bonds show covalent character because as an ionic bond is polarized some electrons (or the electron cloud) "stretch" closer to in-between the two elements being more similar to how a covalent bond has shared electrons in the middle.
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