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The exceptions to the octet rule are P, S, and Cl because they have an unfilled d subshell. However, I do not know the maximum amount of electrons they can hold, but I do not think that it is that relevant. Just know that these three elements can have more than 8 electrons.
There are other exceptions that can have expanded octets beyond just P, S, and Cl. Any element that would have unfilled d-orbitals able to be used would be able to accommodate extra electrons and have an expanded octet. It's just that the first ones that are able to do this are P, S, and Cl.
In addition, with elements with expanded octets, the best way to determine the amount of extra electrons they typically store is through calculating its formal charge. For example, with S, if it forms four bonds with other elements, it will typically have one additional lone pair of electrons in order to keep its formal charge at zero (FC = 6 valence e - (2 lone pair e + 8 paired e/2) = 6 - (2 + 4) = 6 - 6 = 0).
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