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When there is a double bond, there are more electrons being shared between the two atoms, thus the attraction between the nucleus of the atoms (the positively charged regions) are pulling on two negatively charged electrons instead of one. This is a stronger attraction than a single bond with one electron being attractive to the nucleus. That is also why a triple bond is shorter than a double bond.
Sometimes, if the structure has resonance, the double bond may not be much longer than the single bond. This occurs only if a species is resonant because all of its possible resonant structures blend, thus creating a partial double bond structure and making the double bond shorter than it otherwise would have been, but still longer than the normal single bond.
VLi_1L wrote:Why are single bonds longer than double bonds?
The attraction is stronger in the double bond, since there are more electrons, which pulls the atoms closer together, causing the bond length to be shorter than a single bond.
Single bonds are a lot weaker than double bonds because there are less electrons involved in the bonding process. Since they are weaker, they aren't pulled as closely together, whereas double bonds are stronger and pulled closer to each other, and triple bonds even stronger and closer than that
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