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I believe it's the other way around, in which atom size affects electronegativity. Atom size decreases across a period because the atomic number of an atom increases, meaning the positive charge of the nucleus pulls in electrons more strongly, leading to a stronger electronegativity. Overall, smaller atomic size means electrons are closer to the nucleus and pulled more strongly, leading to larger electronegativity.
They're not directly correlated but as electronegativity increases across the periodic table so do the number of protons in the nucleus so atom size goes down, as the protons attract the electrons more tightly. As we go down the periodic table, electronegativity decreases because electrons are further away from the pull of the nucleus and atomic radius goes up.
Electronegativity is affected by the size of the atom, not the other way around. In fact, they're somewhat inversely proportional - as atom size increases, electronegativity decreases because it is easier for smaller atoms to attract electrons since the nucleus would be much closer to the electron cloud. Also, electronegativity trends and atomic size trends are opposite. Electronegativity increases up a group and left to right on a period, while atomic size increases down a group and right to left on a period.
I don't believe that electronegativity and atomic radius are directly related. However, their trends are opposite, with the atomic radius increasing down and to the left and the electronegativity increasing up and to the right. It is a case of correlation without causation I believe.
Typically electronegativity has the "opposite" trend in comparison to that of atomic radius. This is because the trend in the periodic table for electronegativity is increasing from left to right and bottom to top. In contrast, atomic radius increases from right to left and from top to bottom. These traits have contrasting trends since atomic radius increases as each atom has access to higher quantum numbers (n) while electronegativity changes based on effective nuclear charge, as moving right in the periodic table means that elements have higher numbers of protons, which, in turn, makes those atoms more likely to hold on to electrons in a given bonding pair.
Electronegativity does not directly affect atom size but there is correlation. Typically cations are smaller and they have less electronegativity and anions are larger and they have less electronegativity. Anions are smaller because they have more e- (more electronegativity) and so they have a larger atomic radii.
I do not think that the size of an atom is influenced by the electronegativity that it contains, but we do see that it is somewhat the opposite of each other because the periodic table shows a trend that electronegativity gradually increases when going left to right/bottom to top of the table. On the other hand, the trend of the radius is the opposite.
"Electronegativity is the tendency of the atoms of an element to attract electrons when they are chemically combined with another element." So electronegativity deals with electrons from other atoms and not itself which is why it doesn't affect atom size. But as the rest of the posts said it is the opposite trend to atomic radius.
Electronegativity does not cause changes in atomic size, nor does atomic size cause changes in electronegativity, but they have similar trends because they were both affected by the attractive forces between the electrons and nucleus.
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