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I believe it's the other way around, in which atom size affects electronegativity. Atom size decreases across a period because the atomic number of an atom increases, meaning the positive charge of the nucleus pulls in electrons more strongly, leading to a stronger electronegativity. Overall, smaller atomic size means electrons are closer to the nucleus and pulled more strongly, leading to larger electronegativity.
They're not directly correlated but as electronegativity increases across the periodic table so do the number of protons in the nucleus so atom size goes down, as the protons attract the electrons more tightly. As we go down the periodic table, electronegativity decreases because electrons are further away from the pull of the nucleus and atomic radius goes up.
Electronegativity is affected by the size of the atom, not the other way around. In fact, they're somewhat inversely proportional - as atom size increases, electronegativity decreases because it is easier for smaller atoms to attract electrons since the nucleus would be much closer to the electron cloud. Also, electronegativity trends and atomic size trends are opposite. Electronegativity increases up a group and left to right on a period, while atomic size increases down a group and right to left on a period.
I don't believe that electronegativity and atomic radius are directly related. However, their trends are opposite, with the atomic radius increasing down and to the left and the electronegativity increasing up and to the right. It is a case of correlation without causation I believe.
Typically electronegativity has the "opposite" trend in comparison to that of atomic radius. This is because the trend in the periodic table for electronegativity is increasing from left to right and bottom to top. In contrast, atomic radius increases from right to left and from top to bottom. These traits have contrasting trends since atomic radius increases as each atom has access to higher quantum numbers (n) while electronegativity changes based on effective nuclear charge, as moving right in the periodic table means that elements have higher numbers of protons, which, in turn, makes those atoms more likely to hold on to electrons in a given bonding pair.
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