## 5 percent rule

MaryBanh_2K
Posts: 101
Joined: Wed Sep 18, 2019 12:21 am

### 5 percent rule

In class, Lavelle mentioned something called the 5 % rule. I didn't really understand this concept. Can someone explain when to use this? Does it only apply to acids and bases ICE calculations?

Sarah Blake-2I
Posts: 153
Joined: Fri Aug 30, 2019 12:16 am

### Re: 5 percent rule

The 5% rule refers to the acceptable percentage of x in relation to the initial amount that makes it okay to approximate the percent ionization with weak acid and base calculations.

Amir Bayat
Posts: 115
Joined: Sat Sep 07, 2019 12:16 am

### Re: 5 percent rule

If the percent deprotonization or percent protonization is less than 5%, then the x value is valid. If it is not, then the quadratic formula is required and an estimate is not a safe approximation for the reaction.

Anthony Hatashita 4H
Posts: 103
Joined: Wed Sep 18, 2019 12:21 am

### Re: 5 percent rule

The percent protonization or deprotonization needs to be less than 5% for the x value to be valid; it makes it acceptable to use approximations.

MinuChoi
Posts: 100
Joined: Wed Sep 18, 2019 12:15 am

### Re: 5 percent rule

The 5% rule should be considered when you remove x- additions/subtracts to make the ICE equation easier to solve (when K <10^-3)

Amanda Mei 1B
Posts: 109
Joined: Sat Aug 24, 2019 12:16 am

### Re: 5 percent rule

Divide the x value that you find by the initial concentration to check if it is less than 5% of the initial concentration (less than 5% is deprotonated). This checks if it is small enough to disregard if being subtracted from the initial concentration, making your calculations much easier.

Posts: 106
Joined: Sat Aug 24, 2019 12:17 am
Been upvoted: 1 time

### Re: 5 percent rule

The 5% rule is just a way of making sure that when you remove the x from the bottom of the fraction, you aren't affecting the answer. The idea is if x is less than 5% of the number its being subtracted from, it makes such a little difference that it is mathematically ok to assume x is 0 relative to the bigger number.

Elizabeth Harty 1A
Posts: 125
Joined: Sat Jul 20, 2019 12:16 am

### Re: 5 percent rule

What approximation is it talking about?

705121606
Posts: 68
Joined: Wed Sep 18, 2019 12:17 am

### Re: 5 percent rule

You can use the approximation when your K value is smaller than 10^-3 so you can save time not doing the quadratic equation. This is because a value that small in comparison to the initial values given will not affect your x value by much. After solving for x, you can do the % depronated. This is calculated by the x value over the initial value, it should be less than 5% to know that the approximation was valid.

Tahlia Mullins
Posts: 105
Joined: Thu Jul 25, 2019 12:15 am

### Re: 5 percent rule

The 5% rule is used to verify that assuming x to be negligibly small is a correct assertion. It is simply the calculation of percent protonation.

HuyHa_2H
Posts: 100
Joined: Wed Sep 11, 2019 12:15 am

### Re: 5 percent rule

You use the 5 percent rule to make sure that the approximation that you made where x is 0 in the denominator when k is less than 10^-3 is valid and should be used every time you solve for equilibrium concentrations using the ICE chart.