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Intensive properties don't depend on the quantity of matter that's being measured, while extensive properties do depend on the quantity being measured. An intensive property would be density while an extensive property would be volume.
The way I remember the difference is that extensive properties can be divided by the amount of the substance (e.g. heat capacity divided by mass) to become intensive properties (specific heat capacity as a result of heat capacity/mass).
Extensive properties depend on your sample size. Specific heat capacity, for example, is an extensive property since it will increase with a greater sample size (requires more energy to increase the temperature of a larger sample by one degree celsius than a smaller sample size).
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