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The prefix "neo" is used when all but two carbons form a continuous chain, whereas the prefix "tert" is used when the functional group is bonded to a tertiary carbon. In other words, “neo” is used during any part of the hydrocarbon chain whereas "tert" is used only for a functional group that is bonded to a tertiary carbon, or a carbon that is bonded to 4 other carbons.
A neo group has three methyl groups at the end and must have at least 5 carbons total. Usually there is a secondary carbon that connects the neo group to the main chain. A tert butyl group is a branching chains that also has three methyl groups but the tertiary carbon connects the three methyl groups to the main chain. The test-butyl group is a subdivision of the neo group.
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