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Is there an explanation for the chromium and copper electron configuration exception? Do we have to memorize the electron configurations or is there a way to figure it out?
The atoms are more stable when the d orbital is either half filled or completely filled versus partially filled, therefore one e- from the 4s orbital is "moved" into the 3d orbital in both cases. I believe the only way to know these exceptions is memorization.
Is there a reason for this exception? (the difference in stability)
This result is from empirical data, there is not a simple explanation for the exception.
The d-orbitals for Chromium and Copper are only half-filled and fully-filled. Instead of writing Chromium as [Ar]3d^44s^2, you would write the electron configuration as [Ar]3d^54s^1 to fill the d-orbital with five electrons rather than four. The same goes for copper, instead of 9 electrons in the d-orbital and 2 electrons in the s-orbital, you would write it as 10 electrons in the d-orbital and 2 electrons in the s-orbital.
Cr and Cu are exceptions because they are more 'stable' with a 4s^1 configuration, this makes me wonder, is there any way we can measure or investigate stability experimentally?
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