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I understand that there are two types of heat capacities, molar heat capacity and specific heat capacity. What is the difference between the two and what type of problems require each one/when do you use one as opposed to the other?
specific heat capacity is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 gram of a substance by 1 K, whereas molar heat is the amount of heat needed to raise the temperature of 1 mole of a substance by 1 k.
Molar heat capacity measures how much heat is needed to increase the temperature of one mole of that substance by one degree while specific heat capacity measures how much heat is needed to increase the temperature of one gram by one degree. I believe specific heat capacity is used in calorimeter problems where you are given the mass of a substance (for example: water). I would look at what units the problem gives to determine which heat capacity to use.
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