## Hybrid Orbitals

$sp, sp^{2}, sp^{3}, dsp^{3}, d^{2}sp^{3}$

Dominique Zuk 1G
Posts: 20
Joined: Wed Sep 21, 2016 2:58 pm

### Hybrid Orbitals

I know how to find the hybridization, however I am confused by the conceptual aspect behind it. Can someone please explain, for example, sp3 hybridization and how you can tell if an atom has sp3 hybridization besides just looking at the number of regions subtracted by one?

Alexa_Kwang_1D
Posts: 24
Joined: Wed Sep 21, 2016 3:00 pm

### Re: Hybrid Orbitals

You can find hybridization by counting the number of atoms bonded to the atom you're examining and the number of lone pairs the atom has (regions of electron density). You don't subtract 1 from that sum because you are not using "sp" as a unit (sp^3 is not 3 sp's). "S" is a separate orbital from the three p orbitals so sp^3 is when you have four regions of electron density (1 s + 3 p = 4 regions of electron density). Hybridization is just mixing atomic orbitals into the same number of new "equal" orbitals (I think of it like averaging but I may be mistaken).

nikita bhat 2D
Posts: 29
Joined: Wed Sep 21, 2016 2:59 pm

### Re: Hybrid Orbitals

One way to conceptually think about hybridization is to think about the energy levels for s and p. When separate, the s orbital has less energy than p, but when they become hybridized it is as though they create a new energy level for them both to exist. When trying to determine what the hybridization is, you don't need to subtract one from the energy densities. If there are 3 bonds and 2 lone pairs, there are 5 electron densities. This would equate sp3d hybridization.

BrianaBarr2A
Posts: 22
Joined: Wed Sep 21, 2016 3:00 pm

### Re: Hybrid Orbitals

Is it true that all hybridized orbitals have sigma bonds?

Mirian_Garcia_2G
Posts: 51
Joined: Wed Sep 21, 2016 3:00 pm

### Re: Hybrid Orbitals

Hey Dominique,

I found a very helpful video by Khan Academy. I think he does a great job with explaining the principles behind hybridization & hybrid orbitals. Hope it helps! Here's the link: https://www.khanacademy.org/science/che ... -jay-final