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An atomic orbital is basically the most probable location an electron is going to be located which is based off a wave function. The orbitals are mainly classified by three different quantum numbers the n, l, and ml. The n determines the size and energy of the orbitals this is the defining factor as to what shell an orbital belongs to.There are subshells that exist within each n shell and the l quantum number describes these orbitals such as the s orbital where l=0, the p orbital where l=1, the d orbital where l=2, and the f orbital where l=3.
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