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This is due to fact that elements have the tendency to look for more stable states. Therefore, to have a stable ground state, elements tend to follow the Pauli exclusion principle and Hund's rule. If these rules are not followed, then it is in an excited state.
This is because that each element is different in the number of electrons it wants to take/give away when bonding. So for Cu, it has 2 valence electrons, so it would want to give up those 2 to make it stable, but not more than is in its valence ring. It also might want to take electrons to make it stable, but since it would need a large number, it is more unlikely.
Elements want to achieve an electron configuration that is like the closest inert gas, because this is the most stable form for the atom to be in. So, they will lose or gain just enough electrons so that they can have a full outer shell or electrons. In the case of copper, it has 2 valence electrons and according to the octet rule, it needs an outer shell with 8 electrons. So, it will just give away those 2 electrons, resulting in the cation Cu^(2+)
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