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A dipole is when a molecule is separated by a partial positive charge and a partial negative charge. For example, H2O has a dipole moment. Oxygen is more electronegative and thus has a negative charge, while the two hydrogen carry a more positive charge. A dipole is quantified by its dipole moment which can be measured.
A dipole is a result of differing electronegativity in a covalent bond. This causes one side of the bond to be more positive and the other to be more negative due to one of the atoms wanting the electron more. This difference can interact with other molecules that have this effect and this is what is a dipole-dipole interaction.
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