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Cl2 is more thermodynamically stable than F2 because of its smaller K vale, or equilibrium constant. This also means that it is going to dissociate less totally than F2 into singular atoms, which in turn makes it more stable (since it wants to stay in its original state of a diatomic molecule).
A molecule is more thermodynamically stable if it has a smaller K value. The smaller the K value, the less product there is relative to reactant. That means the reactant (in this case, Cl2 and F2) will dissociate less and remain as reactants.
The more stable a system is, the lower the potential energy of it is. Chemical processes usually occur because they are thermodynamically favorable, meaning they go from high energy(less stable) to low energy(more stable).
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