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It has to be done in a vacuum because, at normal atmospheric pressure, electrons bounce and collide with each other which would ruin the experiment. Without a vacuum the electrons could also crash into other molecules in the air like water vapor.
asalest 2K wrote:Why does photoelectric effect have to be done under a vacuum?
Hi! The vacuum is super important because it creates a more controlled environment and minimizes the effect of different electrons bumping into each other and changing energy/charges/speeds. Hope this helps.
The photoelectric effect needs to be done under a vacuum so that the experimental conditions are as controlled as possible. If the photoelectric effect weren't done under a vacuum, then the electrons would interact with the atoms in the atmosphere, which would have an influence on the experimental results.
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