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Ionic and covalent bonds were discussed during the lectures, but I was wondering if anyone could explain to me the difference between ionic and covalent bonds? I also wanted to know if certain elements form ionic/covalent bonds?
Ionic bonds are formed when a metal (e.g. potassium) transfers its electron to a nonmetal (e.g. chlorine) which then forms an electrostatic attraction between the cation (metal) and the anion (nonmetal). Covalent bonds result from the sharing of electrons between nonmetals (e.g. nitrogen, oxygen, sulfur). Hope this helps!
Hey, so as the previous person already mentioned, ionic bonds occur when there's a complete transfer of valence electrons, so think of it as the atom with higher electronegative charge will "steal" the valence electron(s) from the atom with the lower electronegative charge. Whereas a covalent bond is a sharing of electrons between two atoms. Here is where the subject of partial charge comes into play since one atom can have more pull of the electrons vs. the other.
Ionic bonds form when an atom transfers an electron to another to form a bond where covalent bonds form when atoms share electrons. Ionic bonds are usually formed between a metal and nonmetal where ionic bonds are formed between 2 nonmetals.
In an ionic bond formed between atoms with large differences of electronegativity. Covalent bonds are formed by sharing electrons. Ionic bonds are usually between a metal and nonmetal, while covalent bonds are usually between 2 nonmetals.
Aside from what everyone mentioned, ionic bonds tend to be stronger than covalent bonds due to the coulombic attraction between ions of opposite charges. However, covalent bonds are stronger than ionic bonds in water.
Jason Nguyen_1B wrote:Ionic and covalent bonds were discussed during the lectures, but I was wondering if anyone could explain to me the difference between ionic and covalent bonds? I also wanted to know if certain elements form ionic/covalent bonds?
Unlike ionic bonds, covalent bonds share electrons and usually occur with the same elements, like O2. On the other hand, ionic bonds have one element that "takes" an electron, resulting in a difference in charges, one with a negative charge (the element that took the electron) and one with a positive charge (the element that lost an electron). Due to the difference in charges, it makes them attracted to each other, thus making an ionic bond, because like people say, "opposites attract". This usually occurs with halogens (column 17) with elements from column 1, such as Na+Cl-.
I hope that helps!
to add to all the other replies, the reason why some atoms form covalent bonds instead of ionic bonds is that they have similar electronegativity, which means neither of them has a stronger "pull" on the electron, so they just share it.
Ionic bonds are formed when a metal transfers its electron to a nonmetal to form an electrostatic attraction between them, while covalent bonds are from the sharing of electrons between nonmetals.
Ionic bonds are usually between elements that differ greatly in electronegativity or very opposite sides of the periodic table. Professor Lavelle told us that we would get a table with the electronegativity values so this could be helpful in determining something is an ionic bond. When it comes to Lewis structures, we can determine ionic bonds of we see that there are a very small amount of valence electrons on one atom compared to another. This means that there is likely to be an electron transfer of that one element with fewer electrons, making it a cation. Covalent bonds are when elements share electrons rather than transfer electrons. We can determine if something is a covalent bond using the polarizability and if the electronegativity differences are low. In Lews is structures, they have around the same number of atoms or share multiple bonds.
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